Flood and Its Disasters In Pakistan

    Flood and Its Disasters In Pakistan (An Essay)  

1. Introduction
                          i. Nature and human history
                          ii. Flood, the main cause disaster.
2. What is Flood?
                          i. Ice melts on the hills during summer season, resulting the rise in water level of rivers.
                          ii. Flood also occurs when there is some land sliding in hilly areas.
3. What cause flood?
                          i. When Mother Nature gets angry, there occur floods.
                          ii. Torrential Rains
                          iii. It results in general destruction.
                          iv. Lacks of storage capacity of water reservoirs
4. Effects:
                          i. Complete destruction of infrastructure
                          ii. Claims many Precious lives.
                          iii. Uncountable property loss.
5. Psychological and social problems. It generates:
                          i. Poverty
                          ii. Crimes
                          iii. Widespread disappointment
                          iv. Homelessness and joblessness
6. History of Floods in Pakistan:
                          i. Flood of 1980’s and then now in 2010.
                          ii. The worst tragedy in the history of Pakistan.
                          iii. Claimed thousands of lives, countless injured.
7. Relief Efforts:
                          i. Role of Pak Army
                          ii. Role of Pakistani Masses
                          iii. Role of N.G.Os.
                          iv. Role of International Community
8. Measures To Be Taken To Avoid such calamity:
9. Conclusion:
                          i. More Dams to be built.
                          ii. More Reservoirs to be built.
Man is helpless before the will of Allah
Forces of nature have mostly been hostile to human existences. History shows man’s struggle against these
forces. Floods are the major factor that is responsible for bringing drastic change on the surface of the earth. Over the past few decades floods have caused disaster at a large scale. They have claimed many precious lives. The recent calamity of the July. Flood was the greatest of all the tragedies, Pakistan has ever seen.
Our Earth is very violent and when Mother Nature gets angry, there is no way to stop her. Floods are considered one of the most devastating natural disasters that have claimed many precious lives and caused invaluable property damages.
Flood is a form of natural disaster it occurs when there is more water than the lakes, rivers, oceans, or ground can hold. It is known to everyone that one third of our earth is covered with water. This water flows through water channels in the forms of river, canals and seas. When the water level rises above the banks, it causes food and widespread disaster.
It is usually seen that with the summer season bring heavy rain fall, resulting high water level in the rivers. So, there occurs flood. Besides, floods also occur as a result of land sliding in the hilly areas. Many years ago same kind of flood occurred in northern areas which damaged even the Indus River. Consequently, a huge area was flooded causing heavy death toll and loss of property. Missions of people were displaced as a result that flood. Then the flood of 1980’s also damaged many areas of Pakistan.
The season of Monsoon often brings torrential rains with it in Pakistan. Thus, roads, streets and rives are flooded. There is water and everywhere during this time of the year. Since, Pakistan can store only 9% of its annual river inflows, which is significantly lower than the figures for India (33%), the Nile Basin in Egypt (47%) and the Colorado Basin in the US (49%). As a result, the floods took away 50 MAF water to the Arabian Sea, despite the fact that Pakistan is facing 30% power shortage and 25-40% water shortage in agriculture sector. The flood intensity would have reduced by half if the already indentified technically feasible dams of Bhasha, Mangla raising, Munda, Akore and Kalabagh were constructed, with combined storage of 23 MAF. Construction of additional storages will of glaciers in the Western Himalayas due to climate change.
As University of Michigan atmospheric scientist wrote on the Weather Underground Blog, “What is happening in Pakistan cannot be described in a single word – like disaster or catastrophe. We are watching a combination of climate, weather, population, societal capacity, and geopolitics whose scope and ramifications (outcome) are far beyond a “historic flood.”
The water has flowed south from northwestern Pakistan, Where seasonal monsoon rains lasted for a month without stopping. Monsoons are normal, but the duration and intensity was bizarre. Climate Scientists often describe such weather aberrations as fitting a pattern predicted by global warming – indeed, Indian subcontinent monsoons have been getting more extreme for a half-century but don’t assign blame for specific events. In Pakistan, however, some scientists have no trouble placing blame.
The recent devastating flood in Pakistan destroyed more than half the economy of the country. The country which was already facing several other crises including terrorism, poverty, corruption, illiteracy has now hit by another challenge in the form of flood.
According to a calculation, it was the worst ever disaster faced by Pakistan in her history. Several thousand people became homeless and hundreds of them died. Crops on miles of acres were destroyed besides the loss of live stock. Not only this but whole the villages were destroyed. Many people lost their dear ones ion this flood. The worst of all was how to accommodate and temporarily feed those who were flood affetees.
The 2010 Pakistan began in July 2010 following heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan and affected the Indus River basin. At one point, approximately one-fifth of Pakistan’s total land area was underwater. According to Pakistani government data the floods directly affected about 20 million people. Mostly by destruction of property, livelihood and infrastructure, with a death toll of close to 2000. The UN estimates that the humanitarian crisis created by the flood exceeds the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
The power infrastructure of Pakistan also took a severe blow from the floods, which damaged 10,000 transmission lines and transmission lines and transformers, feeders and power houses in different flood-hit areas. Flood water inundated Jinnah Hydro power and 150 power houses in Gilgit. The damage caused a power shortfall of 3.135 gigawatt.
Despite this ruinous flood, the role of Pakistan army and public in the rescue and restoration efforts is praise worthy. They helped their countrymen selflessly. Pakistan army deployed thousands of its soldiers to get the flood victims from the flooded areas. It also carried a massive operation for their temporary settlement to safe areas. Army with the combined efforts of the conveyed the things of daily use to the flood effecters. Temporary hospitals were established to cure the disease that come in the wake of flood.
The role of international rescue agencies, particularly Muslim N.G.O’s and our brother country Saudia Arabia and Turkey really show their love for their Pakistan Muslims. They helped Pakistani govt. in all types of rescue and restoration operations. Millions of dollars were donated by Saudi Arabia Turkey, Muslim and other countries of the world to get the people out of this massive natural disaster. However, the role of out govt. has not been praise worthy during all this drama of calamity. The inability of many of the government officials and departments came into focus. Even many of our politicians and high ups engulfed the goods sent by international donor agencies. Many canals were breached by the influential land lords to save their lands and crops putting the people of under developed areas in trouble of flood.
Now the life is coming to its normal after a huge period of disappointment. The need of the hour is how to check this calamity of flood in the future? The only and valid answer is to help us to over the flood but also to produce electricity to over the giant of severe load shedding.


70 Important General Knowledge Questions and Answers

1. Which word is wrongly spelt in the following set of words:-
Answer: Sleeve

2. Every wise man should save for...
Answer: Rainy days

3. Sleeping partner means:-
Answer: One who has invested in business but takes no active part in its management.

4. UN was established to:-
Answer: Settle political disputes.

5. Yellow journalism refers to:-
Answer: Sensationalism

6. Law is never law unless:-
Answer: It is enforced by a sovereign authority

7. A computer derives its basic strength from:-
Answer: Memory

8. If a car drives 25 kilometres on two litres of petrol, how many litres will be needed for trip of 150 kilometres?
Answer: 7

9. Find 60% of 70:-
Answer: 42

10. Vitamin C is essential for:-
Answer: Appetite

11. Sound cannot travel through:-
Answer: Vacuum 

12. A good tax should:-
Answer: Encourage growth in all sectors of the economy.

13. A system which results in a rigid one-party dictatorship permitting private ownership but not management of the production is:-
Answer: Marxism

14. The tax levied on the import and export of commodities is named as:-
Answer: Customs duty

15. We see the flash of lightning before we hear the sound of the thunder because:-
Answer: The light rays travel much faster than the sound waves.

16. The Ozone layer plays ________ role for the organic life on earth.
Answer: Beneficial

17. Bonded Labour is:-
Answer: Forced labour

18. If you write down all the numbers from 1-100, how many times would you write 3?
Answer: 20

19. Complete the series.
6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, _______.

 Answer: 27, 30 
20. A seventeen years old is not ________ to vote in elections.
Answer: Old enough

21. Which word is wrongly spelt in the following set of words:-
Answer: Desperate

22. Promptly means:-
Answer: At once

23. Inflation refers to:-
Answer: Devaluation of money

24. Geographically Kashmir is divided into three major parts:-
Answer: Jammu, Azad Kashmir, Held Kashmir

25. “The System of Dyarchy” was scrapped in the Provinces and introduced in the centre.” This reform was introduced by:-
Answer: Government of India Act, 1935

26. An increase in hoarding results in:-
Answer: Increase in prices

27. A computer cannot do anything without:-
Answer: Input device

28. One of the infectious diseases conveyed from one person to another through air is:-
Answer: Tuberculosis 

29. Lunar Eclipse takes place when:-
Answer: The shadow of the earth falls on the moon

30. A man buys a shirt for Rs. 70 after getting a discount of 20%. What was the marked price on the shirt?
Answer: Rs. 87.50 

31. Give the next two numbers in the following series:-
23, 30, 21, 33, 19, 36, ______
Answer: 17, 39

32. What is meant by mopia?
Answer: Short sightedness

33. The examiner made us ________ our identification in order to be admitted to the test centre.
Answer: Show

34. Which of these is the most predominant in the composition of atmosphere?
Answer: Nitrogen

35. Indicate the word which has the correct spellings:-
Answer: Existence

36. Federal revenues are maximum from:-
Answer: Excise and sales taxes

37. Soda water serves as:-
Answer: A primary remedy for upset stomach

38. General Sales Tax is levied on:-
Answer: The sale price of goods which are produced in the country

39. Electricity of 220 volts is normally used for domestic purposes because this is:-
Answer: The average voltage acquired by the domestic circuit

40. Special glasses are recommended to see solar eclipse because:-
Answer: They refract light

41. Calorie is a ____________.
Answer: Unit of quantity of heat

42. Optical Fiber System is ______.
Answer: Telecommunication system

43. Prices for bikes can run ______ Rs. 3500.
Answer: As high as

44. The plural from of loaf is:-
Answer: Loaves

45. Monetary and fiscal policies have as their goal:-
Answer: All of these

46. The tax imposed on the property/owners of houses of plots and motor vehicles is called:-
Answer: Wealth tax

47. Barter system means:-
Answer: Exchange of goods

48. What function is performed by liver in the human body?
Answer: Acts as a store house of digested sugar

49. A soldier drove east for four miles, then drove north for five miles, then turned to his left and drove for one mile and again turned to his left. Which choice gives the direction in which he was driving now?
Answer: South

50. Physiotherapy is a curative method for:-
Answer: Immobility of joints

51. If two steel balls having different masses are allowed to fall freely from the roof of a building, they will reach the ground:-
52. Dialysis is meant for:-
Answer: Kidneys

53. The people of the Bosnia-Herzegovina voted in favour of independence from:-
Answer: Yugoslavia

54. Slump means:-
Answer: Fall in the prices of stock

55. Addiction means:-
Answer: Craving for certain drugs or food

56. A man sneezes when he has cold:-
Answer: Because he cannot help it

57. Why do you need a doctor's prescription to buy certain drugs?
Answer: Because they can do harm if misused

58. A computer consists mainly of electronic:-
Answer: Devices

59. Six students in a class failed in algebra. This represents 16? per cent of the class. How many students passed the course?
Answer: 30

60. A boy walked for ½ hour and then got a bus for 1/3 of an hour. What part of an hour did the entire trip take?
Answer: 5/6

61. In a democratic country which of the following is considered the fourth estate?
Answer: Press

62. A coalition government means:-
Answer: Government formed by two or more political parties

63. Local authorities receive the largest portion of their income from:-
Answer: Urban immovable property tax

64. Municipal tax on articles coming inside a city is called:-
Answer: Octroi

65. The book entitled 'Empire and Islam: Punjab and The Making of Pakistan' was written by:-
Answer: Gilmartin

66. Research in the work place reveals that many people work for many reasons
Answer: Besides money

67. Invoice is:-
Answer: A statement which describes full particulars concerning the quality and price of goods

68. Reuters is a word known:-
Answer: News agency

69. Modern computers as compared to earlier computers are:-
Answer: Faster and smaller

70. AOL are an internet service provider. What does AOL stand for?
Answer: America Online.

100 Important General Knowledge Questions and Answers

1- What plants exhale at night
Answer: Carbondioxide

2- Velocity of sound m/s
Answer: 343

3-which vitamins not stored in human body?
Answer: C

4- Lake of vitamin “C” create which disease
Answer: Skin Disease

5-which vitamin help blood clotting?
Answer: K

6- Founder of Muslim rule in India
Answer: Qutubuddin Abek

7- Razia sultana belong to?
Answer: Slave Dynasty

8- Second battle of panipat fought between
Answer: Akbar vs Himu Bakal

9- Attock fort was constructed by
Answer: Akbar

10- Mancher lake situated in?
Answer: Dadu

11- Pakistan number among world population?
Answer: 6th

12- Share of Punjab among area of Pakistan
Answer: 25%

13- Length of Khyber Pass
Answer: 53Kilo Meter

14- Urinium resources found in Pakistan?
Answer: Dera GaziKhan (DG Khan)

15- Mostly part of gobi desert found in?
Answer: Mangolia

16- Taklamakan desert found in
Answer: Xinjaning China

17- Longest river of the world is?
Answer: Nile

18- Largest sea of the world?
Answer: South China Sea

19- Largest coastal boundry country?
Answer: Canada

20- Brazil situated in?
Answer: South America

21- Which country is peninsula?
Answer: Saudi Arabia

22- Pakistan situates on which line?
1- Equator 2- cancer 3- inecapricorn 4- none
correet answer is option 4

23- Macmohan line is situated between?
Answer: India and China

24- Who is DavidPatrias?
Answer: American General in Afghanistan

25- 1 meter is equal to?
Answer: 3.28 foot

26- Caspian sea makes his boundries with
Answer: Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan.

27- Largest agency among area in Pakistan?
Answer: South Wazirastan

28- Old name of Iraq?
Answer: Mesopotimia

29-Blood is red due to?
Answer: Haemoglobin

30- Marian trence situated near?
Answer: Philpines

31- Headquarter of ghandhara civilization is?
Answer: Texila

32- Head quarter of saarc is situated at?
Answer: Khatmandu

33- Maximum wool produceing country is?
Answer: Australia

34- Official religion of japan is?
Answer: Shintoism

35- Which element use for producing nuclear fuel?
Answer: Urinium

36- How many rakkhu in 30 paraa of quran
Answer: 39

37-Which is less conducter

1- Iron, 2-copper 3- silver 4- wood
my answer was wood but not satisfied

38- Nigara fall lies between
Answer: U.S.A and Canada

39- Which is smallest country of world among area
Answer: San Marino

40- Holy prophet pbuh appointed governer of yeman for collection zakat?
Answer: Hazrat Muaz Bin Jabal

41- How many times zakat mention in quran?
Answer: 32 Times

42- Which sura gives details among zakat receiver?
Answer: Sura Tuba

43- Nazul of first Wohii place?
Answer: Ghari Hira

44- When zakat declered must
Answer: 2 Hijra

45- Light of sun reach in earth
Answer: 8.5 mint (while other options was 3mint 4mint 6.5 mint)

46- Headquarter of ILO situated in?
Answer: Geneva

47- Muslim league name was purposed by?
Answer: Nawab Saleem Ullah Khan of Dahaka

48- Juandice is disturb of which part of body
Answer: Liver

49- Quaid-e-azam leave congress due to
Answer: non- coperative moment by gandhi

50-in hapatiets which organ disturb
Answer: liver

51- Nisab in the amount of gold
Answer: 87.48 gram( but in paper there was not dot present b/w 87 and48)

52- Nisab in silver is?
Answer: 612.32 gram

53-produce which is equal to nisab?
Answer: 948kg wheat or equal

54-if a person having millat1800kg whose prize is half among wheat who many rupees he pay zakat
Answer: zero

55-who was Father of the French Revolution?
Answer: Jean-Jacques Rousseau -

56-statue of freedom in newyark is given by
Answer: France

57- Wall Street is a famous?
Answer: Stock Market in New York

58- Sunlight consist of colours

59-Theory of relativety is presented by?
Answer: Einstien

60- Cash crop is?
Answer: which not cultivated for own use

61-artificial cultivated area give amount ushr equal to
Answer: 1/20

62- if a person obtained something from underground the amount of zakat aplicable
Answer: 1/5

63-zakat among goat aplicable on
Answer: 40 goats

64- amount of zakat among gold silver and similar things
Answer: 2.5 %

65- a government company obtained 1 billion net profit tell who much rupees its gives as a zakat
Answer: zero

66-zakat ordinance promulgated on
Answer: 20 june 1980

67-according to section17 tauluqa committe is equal to
Answer: tehsil commiitte

68- dasman palace is residence of
Answer: Ameer Kwait

69-procelain tower is present in
Answer: China

70- Which muslim organization founded in 1962
Answer: Rabita al-Alam al-Islami

71- crtography is the study of 
Answer: secret writting

72-founder of souct momemt
Answer: Robert Baden-Powell

73- elysee palace is the residence of
Answer: french president

74- second largest population in afghanistan?
Answer: tajik

75-worldwide spread disease is called?
Answer: epidemic

76- zakat year start on
Answer: according to hijra clender

77- zakat year end ?
Answer: 30 shaban

78- governer appointe chief administer with the consult with
Answer: federal government

79- administerator general appointed by
Answer: President

80- The magnitude of earthquake is measured with?
Answer: Richter Scale

81- Who forwarded the Lahore(Pakistan) Resolution?
Answer: A.K fazlul haq

82- East India Company came to India in the reign of:
Answer: A)Shah Jahan B) Jahangir C) Aurangzeb D) Babar

83- The largest Muslim country according to area is?
Answer: kazakistan

84- Zakat can be spent on:A)
Answer: Travelers B) Slaves C) Masakin D)All of these

85- Zakat is exempted on:
Answer: A)Sheep grazing fed free in pastures B) Fruits C) Vegetables D) All of them

86- Who was known as the Man of Destiny?
Answer: nepolin bona part

87- Adam's Peak is in?
Answer: sri lanka

88- According to the Zakat Ordinance Zakat arrears are collected by?
Answer: Tehsildar

89- Red Cross/Crescent HQ is in?
Answer: Geneva

90- Brain Drain
Answer: transfer of Skilled labors

91- Light year complete direction in
Answer: 1 year

92--Musician of antham is
Answer: Ahmed gulami chagla

93- First ushr receive?
Answer: 1982-83 rabi crop

94-DZ committe disolved if
Answer: Member remain not pious

95- If a person failed to pay zakat what act can do?
Answer: send a notice

How to Write an Effective Essay - A Complete Guide

Essay Writing

Introduction to Essay Writing
What is Essay?

 The Word Essay means to Attempt.

i)  Essay is an attempt to compose the relevant ideas in correct, concise, comprehensive and concrete way. 
ii) Essay is just a literary composition of any given Topic
iii) Essay cannot be attractive unless you do not give lightness, grace and ease.

Selecting the Topic for Essay
There will be two types of Topics
1.  General Topics:  “We have to specify” (Example: Pakistan)
2.  Specific Topics: “already specified” (Example: Politics in Pakistan) 
Note: There is no any rule of restriction to choose the topic, it is totally depend on your understanding with the topic.
*Although General Topics are more easier than Specific  

Select Topic for Essay
i)  Energy Crisis in Pakistan
ii)  Status of women in Islam
iii)  Indifference of Attitude
iv)  Being a child is no child’s play
v)  My views about Politics
vi)  Poverty of our Civil Society
vii)  Choose the subject you know the best.

Understanding of Topic
i)  Words of Topic are very important in order to recognize the real sense.
iii)  Every Solution Breeds a New Problem
iii)  Strong Democracy in Future of Pakistan

General Rules for Essay
Rule of unity: The Rule of unity must applies to the structure of paragraph and sentences.

Coherence: The ideas expressed in the Essay should be joined together logically.

Proportion: Proper Proportion should be observed during its various parts.    
Structure of Essay
There are mainly 3 Parts of an Essay 
1.  Introduction
2.  Body
3.  Conclusion

i)  The introduction guides the reader into your paper by grabbing attention and introducing the topic
ii)  An Introduction of an essay generally tells the reader that what he is going to read in the body. 
iii)  An Introduction would consider good if it rivets the reader’s attention and suggest him the general aim of the essay.
iv)  An introduction should be short (max: one page)
vi)  Introduction should be striking and relevant to the subject.
vii)  Introduction should lead to the subject without any unnecessary delay.      

How to write an Introduction?
There are three different methods about writing an introduction of essay.
1)  Direct Method:
Identify the key words and begin with them.
Status of Women in Islam
2)  Indirect Method:
Start with event, saying, story or statement.
3. Full Statement Method
Start with complete Statement which support your topic.
 Example: If topic is Status of women in Islam.
“Islam gives high status to women at every step of life”
Thesis Statement
i)  A thesis statement is simply an argument that you are going to prove. 
ii) It is the road map for your essay and explains to the reader exactly what you will discuss in your paper. 
iii) The thesis statement will be the LAST SENTENCE in your INTRODUCTION paragraph.  
iv)  A basic thesis statement contains the topic and the 1 to 3 main points to support the topic.
For example: if the topic is about “Culture of Pakistan” You can write “Culture of Pakistan has a long history, blends traditions from several other cultures, and provides a rich heritage.” 

Main Body of Essay
i)  Body is just Combinations of PARAGRAPHS.
ii)  It contains Facts Illustration and Reflections.
iii)  Try to place strongest paragraph on the top.
iv)  At least up to 7 pages you must put strongest paragraphs.
v) Paragraph must contain one main idea. In every first sentence put your main idea.
vi)  You must justify your main idea in particular paragraph.
vii)  Do not attempt to exhaust the topic.
viii)  Do not give all that might be said.  
ix)  Avoid using pronouns (I,We, You, They etc…) 

How to write Paragraph?
A full and complete paragraph consists of a MINIMUM of 8-10 sentences and follows a specific format:

TOPIC SENTENCE (1st Sentence)
The topic sentence reflects which thesis statement point you will be discussing in the body paragraph.
You must PROVE your POINT by providing PROOFS (examples) to support your topic sentence.  
You must COMMENT on each PROOF to further your analysis.
Therefore…POINT (topic sentence) PROOF & COMMENT (x3)   

Each paragraph should end with a final statement that brings together the ideas brought up in the paragraph and emphasizes the main point one last time. 

3. Conclusion
The conclusion brings together ALL of the main points of the essay.
It refers back to and RESTATES the THESIS.
The conclusion leaves the reader with a final thought and a sense of closure by resolving any ideas brought up in the essay.



How to construct outline?

An outline is a general plan of the material that is to be presented in an essay. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.
First make rough outline at the back of answer sheet. 
You must give 25 to 40 minutes to construct a proper outline.


CSS Past Paper of General Knowledge Paper II - Current Affairs


Q.2. Evaluate the significance of water conflict between India and Pakistan in global perspective of climate change.           (20)

Q.3. Discuss the impact of foreign aid on Pakistan in post 9/11 scenario.       (20)

Q.4. Substantiate Pakistan’s role in Common Wealth.             (20)

Q.5. How can the energy crisis of Pakistan be resolved?          (20)

Q.6. Discuss issues in the higher educational system vis-à-vis 18th amendment in Pakistan.  (20)

Q.7. How can the corruption be managed in Pakistan?                    (20)

Q.8. Discuss impact of economic development of China on World Order.     (20)


CSS PAST PAPER OF General Knowledge Current AffairsGeneral Knowledge Current Affairs PAST PAPER OF CSS 2012

CSS Past Paper of English Essay


1.            Energy Crisis in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences.

2.            Obesity is the root cause of all diseases.

3.            Beggars cannot be choosers.

4.            The United Nations in the 21st Century: Obligations and Limitations.

5.            Brains, like hearts, go where they are appreciated.

6.            The Emerging Power of Public Opinion.

7.            The Suffering Soul in the Scientific Age.

8.            A Critical Analysis of Education Systems in Pakistan.

9.            Democracy is a culture rather than a process.

10.          Social and Economic Securities for Women in Islam.



CSS Past Paper of Botany I - 2012


Q.2. What are lichens? Give detail of their importance. (20)

Q.3. Differentiate between simple and complex tissue.  (20)

Q.4. Give the classification and economic importance of main groups of Algae.    (20)

Q.5. What is Numerical Taxonomy? Explain cladistic analysis. (20)

Q.6. What is fertilization? Explain different mode of seed dispersal in angiosperms.  (20)

Q.7. Who proposed binomial nomenclature, give its detail. Why Latin is used in nomenclature? (20)

Q.8. Discuss the relation of Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Highlight the advance characters of Pteridophytes with examples.  (20)


CSS Past Paper of Sociology 2012


Q.2.  Define culture invasion? Explain in detail the role of technological innovation and mass media in the revolution of rising expectations and the disruption of traditional society of Pakistan.                 (20)

Q.3.  Explain in detail the analysis of social conflict in capitalist society shown by the prominent sociologist and economist Karl Marx.           (20)

Q.4.  Discuss in detail the accelerating and decelerating factors of social change. How culture ethnocentrism promotes social change and maintains social order.          (20)

Q.5.  Define ethnomethodology. Explain in detail Garfinkel views regarding ethnomethodology. How he used ethnomethodology in the field of sociological research and inquiry?        (20)

Q.6.  Define suicide and its type. Explain in detail the theory of anomy presented by Emile-Durkheim. In what way the theory would be helpful in the solution of current involvement of Pakistani youth in suicidal attempts.                  (20)

Q.7.  Define urban sprawling. Explain in detail the socioeconomic impacts of peripheral areas on crime rate of urban society of Pakistan.   (20)

Q.8.  Write short notes on any TWO of the following:      (2 x 10=20)
(i) Culture diffusion and schools of thoughts on culture diffusion.
(ii) Role of mosques in the integration of Pakistani society.
(iii) Changing family pattern, its causes and consequences.
(iv) The role of government and non-government organisation in poverty   alleviation of  Pakistan.



CSS Past Paper of Botany Paper II - 2012


Q. 2.  Explain Evolution with reference to Darwinism.       (20)

Q. 3.  Give detailed account of Chromosomal aberrations. Support your answer with diagrams.   (20)

Q. 4.  What is salanity and water logging? Discuss with reference to its causes in Pakistan.            (20)

Q. 5.  Which cell division occurs in reproductive cells? How diploid cell produce four heploid daughter cells? Explain.       (20)

Q. 6.  Describe the following:         (4x5=20)
(a) Pyramids           
(b) Food chain                    
(c) Ecological energetics
(d) Concepts of ecosystem

Q. 7.  Write short notes on any TWO of the following:-      (2x10=20)
  1. Genetic code
  2. Poly Ploidy
  3. Mutation


CSS Past Paper of Agriculture 2012


Q.2.  Define Insect Pest Management. How can you suggest IPM Strategy to control insect pests of cotton crop?             (20)

Q.3.  What is Agricultural Mechanization? How can you reduce use of irrigation water through advanced irrigation techniques?       (20)

Q.4.        Describe major management and breeding problems in:
(a)          Fruits                    (b)          Vegetables                         (10+10)

Q.5.        What is modern concept of genetics, gene and gene function? How Knowledge of genetics can be used for improving per hectare yield of crops?   (20)

Q.6.        Define Soil Erosion. Suggest ways and means to be adopted for Soil Conservation in the Rain fed areas of the Punjab.                (20)

Q.7.        Describe Forestry and Range Management. Illustrate measures to overcome growing problems of deforestation in Pakistan.                        (20)

Q.8. Define and differentiate between any four of the following.           (4 x 5=20)
(a)          Pathogen and Disease                                                   (b)       Parasite and Predator
(c)           Organic farming and tunnel Cultivation                 (d)        Soil Texture and Soil Structure
(e)          Land Reform and Land Tenure                                   (f)        Certified Seed and Basic Seed